Modern Slavery & Human Trafficking
Slavery is the condition in which one person is owned as property by another and is under the owner’s control, especially in involuntary servitude. Many conditions that resemble slavery still exist today. Modern slavery encompasses the following: bonded labour, forced labour, descent-based slavery, child slavery, and early and forced marriage. Human trafficking is one common form of modern slavery.
Slavery is the condition in which one person is owned as property by another and is under the owner's control, especially in involuntary servitude.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE PHILIPPINES
The Philippines is a leading source of migrant workers worldwide. Relying on the remittances of overseas migrant workers was initially a stop-gap economic strategy, but it has become well-entrenched in Philippine society. This culture of migration has spanned at least three generations and it has a dangerous dark side: the willingness to take risks in search of better opportunities overseas has been ingrained in the Filipino psyche.
A significant number from the 10 million Filipinos working abroad are subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor predominantly via debt bondage in the fishing, shipping, construction, education, nursing, and agricultural industries, as well as in domestic work, janitorial service, and other hospitality-related jobs, particularly across the Middle East, Asia, and North America.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING DEFINITION
Based on Philippine law, Trafficking in Persons refers to the recruitment, obtaining, hiring, providing, offering, transportation, transfer, maintaining, harboring, or receipt of persons with or without the victim?s consent or knowledge, within or across national borders by means of threat, or use of force, or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of position, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person, or, the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation which includes at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, servitude or the removal or sale of organs.
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, adoption or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation or when the adoption is induced by any form of consideration for exploitative purposes shall also be considered as trafficking in persons even if it does not involve any of the means set forth in the preceding paragraph.
Philippine anti-trafficking law is largely derived from the U.N. Anti- Trafficking Protocol.
According to the 2016 U.S. TIP Report, the Philippines is a source country and, to a lesser extent, a destination and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor.
RISK FACTORS INCLUDE:
- Lack of education/illiteracy
- Lack of access to knowledge or protective information on human trafficking,?safemigration, and recruitment
- Family expectations that obligate children to help, augment, and support family needs
- Erosion of family values, dysfunctional families, and/or experience of abuse and maltreatment in the family
- Peer pressure
- Demand for cheap labor
- Demand for prostitution, especially for young victims (sexism/objectification of women)
- Unregulated new technologies such as the internet, which facilitates cybersex and other forms of prostitution
- Consumerism and materialism
- The city-life culture and culture of migration
- Taking advantage of socio-economic vulnerabilities especially of cultural minorities
- Racism (perceived inferiority of certain racial demographics)
- Weak access to justice